>Paul E. Peterson is the Henry Lee Shattuck Professor of Government at Harvard, Massachusetts, USA, the director of PEPG, and a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, California, USA. He is author or editor of numerous books, including The Education Gap: Vouchers and Urban Schools , with William G. Howell (Brookings, 2004 and 2006). He is coeditor (with Martin West) of No Child Left Behind? The Practice and Politics of School Accountability (Brookings, 2003). David E. Campbell is the John Cardinal O'Hara, C.S.C. Associate Professor of Political Science and a research fellow with the Institute for Educational Initiatives at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA. He is the author of Why We Vote: How Schools and Communities Shape Our Civic Life (Princeton University Press, 2006) and a coauthor or coeditor of The Education Gap: Vouchers and Urban Schools (Brookings, revised 2006), Democracy at Risk (Brookings, 2005), and Charters, Vouchers, and Public Education (Brookings, 2001).