CARLA J. GREENBAUM is director of the Diabetes Program and the Clinical Research Center at Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, USA. She received her MD from Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Dr. Greenbaum has been a leader in clinical investigations and trials to prevent or intervene with the diabetes autoimmune process, contributing to over 100 book chapters, abstracts, and journals. She currently serves as Vice-Chair of Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, an NIH sponsored international consortium to conduct multiple clinical trials in Type 1 diabetes, Director of the North American Network of the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (NIH), and as a member of the Clinical Trials Advisory Group and Scientific Review Committee of the NIH sponsored Immune Tolerance Network. Dr. Greenbaum is a member of the Board of Directors of the Diabetes Vaccine Development Center (Australia) and the Clinical Affairs Advisory Committee for JDRF, as well as serving on many review committees focused on clinical and translational research. LEONARD C. HARRISON is Head of the Division of Autoimmunity and Transplantation at The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, and Professor/Director of The Burnet Clinical Research Unit and Department of Clinical Immunology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. He graduated in medicine from the University of New South Wales, Sydney, and obtained his M.D. and D.Sc from the University of Melbourne, Australia. He has been awarded various honors, including the Wellcome Glaxo Australia Medal and the David Rumbough Award from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International. Dr. Harrison has been Chairman of the Professional Advisory Panel of the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation Australia, President of the Australian Diabetes Society and President of the Immunology of Diabetes Society. He holds nine patents and has contributed to 450 original refereed papers, reviews, books, book chapters, editorials, commentaries, letters and case reports on diabetes and obesity.