The techniques of warfare were transformed during the 15th and 16th centuries by the use of gunpowder and by substantial progress in the effectiveness and destructive power of artillery. Consequently new methods of fortification were introduced, and following the outbreak of the English Civil War most towns and castles had to be re-fortified. The main communication routes followed the lines of the old Roman roads so control of these, and of the major cities, was important. However, the sites that saw most fortification were the two capitals, London for the Parliamentarians and Oxford for the Royalists.
Buy English Civil War Fortifications 1642-51 book by Peter Harrington from Australia's Online Bookstore, Boomerang Books.
(248mm x 185mm x 6mm)
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC
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Author Biography - Peter Harrington
Peter Harrington runs the photographic collection of the Anne S.K. Brown University Library in Providence, Rhode Island. His is a well respected military writer and is author of a number of works. Donato Spedaliere was born in 1967 in Lausanne, Switzerland, and moved to Tuscany at the age of 10, where he still lives. Having studied at the Instituto Nazionale di Belle Arti in Florence he served in the Italian Army as a paratrooper. Sarah Sulemsohn Spedaliere was born in Romania in 1952. At the age of 10 her family emigrated to Israel. Following a degree at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Sarah lectured at the University of Florence as well as completing an architecture degree in 1994. Since 1998 she has worked at Alina Ilustrazioni, which she founded with her husband Donato.