Vicki de Klerk-Rubin, R.N., M.B.A., is the European manager of the Validation Training Institute and a certified Validation Master. She is the co-author of the 1992 revision of Validation: The Feil Method and the 2nd edition of The Validation Breakthrough: Simple Techniques for Communicating with People with "Alzheimer's-Type Dementia." Ms. de Klerk-Rubin holds a bachelor of fine arts from Boston University and a master's of business administration from Fordham University, and is a Dutch-trained registered nurse. Since 1989, she has given Validation workshops, lectures, and training programs in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States of America. She also has worked in numerous nursing facilities in Amsterdam, leading Validation groups and training staff.Ms. de Klerk-Rubin, a native New Yorker, is married to a Dutch diplomat and has 2 daughters who were born in Vienna, Austria. Together they have spent the last 20 years living in Amsterdam, Vienna, Bonn, and The Hague.